GYMN-L Digest - 4 May 1996 - Special issue

There are 2 messages totalling 908 lines in this issue.

Topics in this special issue:

  1. Gymn's FAQ (2 of 4)
  2. Gymn's FAQ (3 of 4)


Date:    Sat, 4 May 1996 17:02:47 -0700
From:    ***@NETCOM.COM
Subject: Gymn's FAQ (2 of 4)

[B.2]  What is Olympic Order?

A defined order in which the gymnasts usually compete their
events.  Here they are, with their common abbreviations in

Men                           Women
Floor Exercise (FX)       Vault (V)
Pommel Horse (PH)         Uneven Bars (UB)
Still Rings (SR or R)     Balance Beam (B)
Vault (VT)                Floor Exercise (FX)
Parallel Bars (PB)
High Bar (HB)

[B.3]  How does a gymnast know when to start his/her

The Secretary will signal the gymnast -- usually with a
green flag, wave of the hand, or light -- when the judges
are ready for the gymnast to begin his/her routine.  The
gymnast returns this signal by presenting him/herself to the
judges by raising one or both arms.  At small meets, a judge
will often just raise his/her hand or nod to the gymnast as
a signal to begin.

[B.4]  What is podium training?

At most international meets, the competition apparatus is
raised off the floor and set on podiums.  Thus, when the
gymnasts are practicing on this raised competition
equipment, it's called podium training.  Podium training is
usually well defined with each team assigned to a time slot,
with organizers leading the gymnasts from event to event.

[B.5]  What are compulsories?

Compulsories are routines that have been defined before an
event, that every gymnast must perform at the meet.  The
same compulsory is used for four years and changes after
every Olympics.  Compulsories will be dropped
internationally after the 1996 Olympics.  Most countries use
compulsories for their younger kids, though, and so
compulsories will certainly continue to exist in the
gymnastics world in some fashion.

[B.6]  How do they pick the Olympic/Worlds teams?

Each country is different.  Usually, the teams are either
hand picked or selected through competition results (or a
bit of both).  In the US, the selection procedure has
historically been to use a combination of scores at national
championships and an Olympic/World Trials; the procedure is
determined by a committee and then the procedures must be
submitted to the USOC for approval before they are

[B.7]  What are the upcoming competitions?  How do I get

Check out the Gym Calendar for full details on competitions:

You can call USAG for competition and ticket information
at (317-237-5050).

[C.1]  What is the Code of Points?

The Code of Points is the criteria for each event which has
been set out by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique
(FIG).  These rules cover all aspects of a gymnast's
performance.  The Code assigns values of difficulty ranging
from A to E, and demonstrates the requirements of each move
with illustrations (such as the angle of handstand that a
gymnast must reach on bars).  The Code also has rules for
how one qualifies to become a judge, the various categories
of judges, seating arrangements for judges at competitions,
and the specific functions of the judges.  The Code also
requires "norms of conduct" for both gymnasts and coaches.

[C.2]  How are gymnasts scored?

Compulsory Exercises:  Compulsory exercises begin with a
start value of 10 points, with deductions taken for
any errors or falls which may occur during the routine.

Optional Exercises (Women):  With the exception of vault,
where each vault is assigned a value, all women's routines
are scored from 9.40 points.  A gymnast can earn an
additional 0.6 points by showing special combinations,
connections, and/or extra D- or E-rated elements, for a
maximum start value of 10.

Optional Exercises (Men):  Men's routines start from a value
of 9.0.  Since a D-element is required, performing one will
automatically raise the start value to 9.1.  If a D-element
is not performed, there is a 0.1 deduction (for a start
value of 8.9).  The extra 1.0 point can be earned by
performing E-rated elements and special connections.

[C.3]  Are the gymnasts required to do any specific moves?

Some of the apparatus have required elements which will
incur deductions if not completed in the optional routine.
Here are some of the requirements:

Beam:         full turn on 1 leg
              gymnastic-acrobatic series
              one jump with great amplitude

Pommels:      scissors

High Bar:     dorsal grip

Rings:        swing to handstand
              press to handstand

Floor (W):    gymnastic-acrobatic series
              one tumbling pass with two saltos

Floor (M):    one-leg or one-arm balance
              minimum of 2 gymnastic-acrobatic series

[C.4]  What is a start value?  What is bonus?


All routines start from a 9.40 (except for vault).

Value Parts (A=0.2, B=0.4, C=0.6, D=0.8)      3.00 points
Combination (construction of the exercise)    2.00 points
Execution                                     4.40 points
Bonus Points                                  0.60 points
                                             10.00 points

If a gymnast attempts to earn bonus points by performing an
extra D- or E-rated element but falls or has a break worth
0.2 or more, then she does not receive the bonus points.


Except for vault, all men's routines are scored from 9.0.
The gymnast can earn bonus points by performing extra D- and
E-rated elements.  Each extra D element is worth 0.1; each
extra E element is worth 0.2 each for a total of 1.0:

Difficulty (A=0.1, B=0.2, C=0.4, D=0.6)       2.40 points
Special Requirements (3 per event @ 0.4 each) 1.20 points
Presentation                                  5.40 points
Bonus Points                                  1.00 points

Men's vaults have the following ratings

A=8.6         C=9.2          E=9.8
B=8.9         D=9.5

and the gymnast can receive up to 0.2 bonus for distance
(0.1 for over 3.5 meters; 0.2 for over 4.0 meters).

[C.5]  What deductions do judges take?

The FIG has set out a Table for General Faults.  Small
faults receive up to 0.15 points' deduction; medium faults
receive up to 0.3 points' deduction; large faults result in
deductions worth more than 0.3 points and may lead to an
invalid exercise.  Following are some of the more common
faults seen (and their deductions, for women's gymnastics):

Slight hop upon dismount                      0.05 points
Poor foot form                                0.10 points
One step upon dismount                        0.10 points
Leg separation (each time)                    0.15 points
Insufficient split position (when required)   0.15 points
Bent arms in support/bent knees               0.20 points
Insufficient height in leaps                  0.20 points
Two steps upon dismount                       0.20 points
Lack of diversified composition               0.20 points
Insufficient use of entire apparatus          0.20 points
Grasping apparatus to avoid falling           0.30 points
Three steps upon dismount                     0.30 points
Fall on one or both hands, knees or hips      0.50 points

Deductions taken in men's gymnastics are 0.1 for a small
fault, 0.2 for a medium fault, and 0.4 for a large fault,
along with some specific deductions (i.e., 0.5 for a fall).

[C.6]  What is Competition 1A, etc.?

Competition 1A is also known as the compulsory exercises.
Every gymnast performs the same routines on each apparatus.
These routines are created by various member nations of the
FIG and test the gymnast's mastery of basic elements and
combinations.  The compulsory exercises are usually
performed only at Olympics, Worlds or national
championships.  The FIG has decided to discontinue this
portion of the competition after the 1996 Olympics.

Competition 1B is also known as the team optionals.  This
portion of the competition is usually held only during a
Worlds or Olympics.  The gymnasts are allowed to show their
own routines on each apparatus.

Competition II is also called the all-around.  The gymnasts
begin from a score of zero, and the gymnast with the highest
score at the end of the competition becomes the all-around
champion.  There is usually a limit on the number of
gymnasts from a country that may compete in the all-around

Competition III is also called the event finals.  The best 8
gymnasts on each event (no more than 2 gymnasts per country
are allowed in each final).  The gymnasts begin from a score
of zero, and the highest scorer wins.  The vault final is
the exception:  each gymnast performs 2 different vaults,
and the scores are averaged to arrive at the final score.

[C.7]  Why is the Code revised every four years?

The FIG revises the Code every 4 years for several reasons.
One, gymnasts and coaches from the leading countries are
able to meet the requirements of a new Code fairly easily
after 4 years and would receive excessively high scores if
the Code were not adjusted to meet the level of the
gymnasts.  Two, by regularly changing the requirements, the
FIG tries to ensure that the sport will continue to evolve.

[C.8]  What is the highest rank for a judge, and how do they
get there?

The highest judge's ranking is the FIG Brevet.  A beginning
judge will attend workshops run by his federation and start
by judging at meets where beginning gymnasts compete.  As a
judge passes each test, he can move up and receive
certification to judge at higher level meets.

[C.9]  So-and-so was over/underscored.  Why?

Because gymnastics uses subjective judging, the results of a
competition are sometimes disputed by the fans, federations,
and coaches.  Overscoring can be the result of home
advantage, a gymnast's popularity, judging bias, and other
factors.  These same factors can likewise contribute to

[C.10]  Do gymnasts submit a routine ahead of time to the

A gymnast does not submit his routine in advance.  The only
exception is women's optional vault, where the gymnasts have
to post the number of the vault they plan to perform.

If a gymnast has invented a new element and would like to
receive possible bonus points for it in a meet, s/he can
submit the skill to the FIG beforehand.  It is evaluated and
rated by the FIG.  In order for the gymnast to have the
element named after him/her, the element must be performed

Judges generally see a gymnast's routine prior to
competition, however, because the judges attend podium
training.  This is beneficial because a judge can make note
of unusual combinations (or routines that lack required
elements, etc.) and be certain to evaluate the routine
correctly during competition.

[C.11]  How do judges remember what a gymnast has done when
he scores a routine?

The FIG has created a shorthand system so the judges can
easily "write down" a routine while it is being performed.
>From there, the judge can quickly review and score a

[D.0]  About this section.

This section gives a VERY BRIEF guide to help a new
gymnastics fan understand some of what they might see on TV.
We would like to assemble a more technically detailed
glossary of elements.  Please note that skill descriptions
are merely notes on how to recognize the skill, NOT on how
to perform the skill!

[D.1]  How are the moves named?

Some elements are named after the gymnast who first
performed the element, while others are merely descriptive
terms of the element performed.  Examples of the former
include the Tsukahara vault, the Comaneci salto and the
Korbut flic; examples of the latter include the aerial
cartwheel, the double back somersault and the handstand.

[D.2]  Basics

Here are some of the most common terms used in naming

Tuck:  the gymnast brings his knees to his chest; the legs
are bent.

Pike:  the gymnast bends at the hips and brings his legs to
his chest while keeping the legs straight.

Layout:  the gymnast keeps his body completely stretched.

Arch:  the legs are kept straight and the back (spine) is
overextended so that the body position takes on a convex

Split:  one leg is extended straight in front of the body;
the other is extended straight behind the body, forming a
180-degree angle.

Straddle:  similar to a split, with the legs extended on
either side of the body (as opposed to front/back).

Flip:  a somersault without the use of the hands.  Also
called a salto.

Twist:  body rotation round the lengthwise axis, as opposed
to a salto.

When speaking of tumbling skills, "flip" refers to rotation
around the hip-to-hip axis of the body, and a "twist" refers
to rotation around the head-to-toe axis.  Rotation around
the front-to-back axis is unusual and referred to as a "side
somi."  Beginning and ending positions are used to determine
the number of twists.

Round-off:  a cartwheel with both feet landing at the same
time.  Used by gymnasts to accelerate a tumbling pass.

Handspring:  also called a flic-flac or a flip-flop.  The
gymnast springs off the hands, using a strong push from the
shoulders.  This move can be performed either forwards or
backwards, and is usually used in tumbling passes.

[D.3]  Vault

Women's vault is 4 feet high, 5 feet long and 14 inches
wide.  Men's vault is also 14 inches wide, but is 5 feet 3
inches long and 4 feet 6 inches high.  Women vault
widthwise, while the men vault lengthwise.  Both men and
women run down a carpeted runway which is 80 feet long and
jump onto a springboard in order to propel themselves onto
and over the horse.  The gymnast leaves the board from both
feet and briefly touches the horse with both hands (this is
called the preflight).  (Men are allowed to perform one-arm
vaults; women are not.)  He then pushes off the horse and
performs flips and/or twists in the air before landing.  As
this event lasts only seconds, the goal is to execute the
vault in one fluid motion and land "like a dart" with no
extra movements.

Skills to look for:

- Cuervo:  handspring onto the horse, 1/2 twist off to
immediate back somersault.

- Piked front 1/2:  handspring onto the horse, piked front
somersault off with 1/2 twist to land.

- Tsukahara:  1/4 to 1/2 twist onto the horse, 1/4 twist off
to immediate back somersault.

- Yurchenko:  round-off onto the springboard and flip flop
back onto the horse ("Yurchenko" refers to the entry.)


Date:    Sat, 4 May 1996 17:03:13 -0700
From:    ***@NETCOM.COM
Subject: Gymn's FAQ (3 of 4)

[D.4]  Uneven Bars and High Bar

Uneven Bars:  The upper bar is 7.6 feet (2.3 m) high, the
lower bar is 5 feet (1.5 m) high, and the bars are 8 feet
long.  In FIG-sanctioned competitions, the bars must be no
more than 150cm apart.  A gymnast moves from one bar to the
other using a variety of skills (such as kips, swings and
saltos) in a fluid motion and with good form.  Each exercise
needs to have at least 10 value parts and at least 3 bar
changes.  The dismounts contain saltos and/or twists and,
like all dismounts, should be landed cleanly.  Grip changes
add difficulty to elements.  A gymnast is determined to be
"facing" in a specific direction by the gymnast's direction
in the hang position.

High Bar:  the bar is 8.5 feet (2.5 m) high and 8 feet (2.44
m) long.  Like women's uneven bars, high bar consists of
continuous swinging moves, changes in direction and grips,
and an exciting (and solid) dismount.

Skills to look for:

- Cast to handstand:  a gymnast in a front support swings
his legs back and out from the bar, lifting his body to
straighten at the shoulders, finishing in a handstand.
Usually preceded by a kip, a move gymnasts use to go from a
hang to a front support (hips by hands on the bar, gymnast
facing up).

- Free hip:  from a handstand on the bar, the gymnast swings
down and backwards with straight arms and a slightly piked
body (hips are close to the bar), the momentum causing the
gymnast to circle the bar.  The gymnast "opens" back up to a
handstand position.

- Gaylord:  release from a front swing to 1.5 forward
somersaults over the bar.  A Gaylord II is released from a
back swing, begins with an immediate half twist (so that the
gymnast is facing "forward"), and then proceeds with the 1.5
forward somersault.

- Giant:  a 360-degree swing around the bar performed with
straight arms and body position.

- Gienger:  release to back somersault and 1/2 twist in pike
position to recatch.  This element can also be performed in
a tuck or layout position.

- Jaeger:  release from a front giant to a front somersault
to recatch on the same side of the bar.  Usually done

- Kovacs:  release to 1.5 back somersault over the bar to
recatch.  Usually a very dynamic move characterized by the
opening of the gymnast out of the tucked position.

- Pak salto:  from HB to LB, backward swing between the bars
with a straight body flip to recatch LB.

- Stalder:  360-degree swing around the bar in a straddle
pike position.

- Tkachev:  also called a reverse hecht.  Release to front
somersault traveling backward over the bar in a
straddle/pike position (sometimes pike or layout), then
recatching the bar.

[D.5]  Balance Beam

The beam is 4 feet high (1.2m), 16 feet 3 inches (4.9m) long
and 4 inches (10cm) wide.  Routines consist of a combination
of dance moves, flips, leaps, balances and turns.  The
gymnast strives to give the impression that she is
performing on a much wider surface.  A routine must last at
least 70 seconds, but not longer than 90 seconds.

Skills to look for:

- Omelianchik:  back dive with 3/4 twist to handstand.  More
commonly seen with a 1/4 twist.

- Flip flop, layout step-out:  flip flops and layouts differ
on beam from "normal" flight skills because of the nature of
the event.  Flip flops tend to have almost no flight in the
second half of the skill, and most layouts are not "true"
layouts because they do not reach the gymnast's shoulder
height.  Some layouts (those performed from a 2-foot
take-off) can be considered "true" layouts and are rated as
D elements.

- Korbut flic:  back dive to hands and swing down to finish
sitting on B in a straddle position.

- Punch front:  front somersault from a 2-foot takeoff.

- Rulfova:  Korbut flic with a full twist.

[D.6]  Dance

Many gymnasts study ballet and other types of dance to
improve their body position and movement.  Gymnasts who have
studied dance usually display better form and fluidity
during their routines than gymnasts with a weaker dance
background.  Dance is a key aspect of balance beam and
women's floor exercise.

Skills to look for:

- Popa:  a full-twisting straddle jump.

- Switch leap:  gymnast initiates the leap with a leg raised
in front but "switches" the position in the air, with that
leg moving to the back of the split.

- Sheep jump, etc:  all these leaps involve the gymnast
throwing her head back and thus not being able to spot the
landing on beam.  For a sheep jump, both legs and thrown
back bent (and ultimately touch the head).  Ring leap: one
leg forward and straight, one leg back and bent, which must
be at head height.  Yang Bo: like ring leap, but with both
legs straight.

[D.7]  Tumbling

The floor mat is 40 feet (12m) square.  Since both gymnastic
and acrobatic skills are required on some events, tumbling
is a major part of the sport.  By springing from one's hands
or feet, the best gymnasts launch themselves into the air
and perform multiple saltos and/or twists before landing.
Currently, front tumbling is popular because the Code has
given it a high value.  Front tumbling is more difficult
than back tumbling, and was less common until the Code
started encouraging gymnasts to do it.  The most popular
tumbling passes tend to be "bounce back" passes which end
with the gymnast performing an immediate punch front to
reverse momentum and sometimes even tumbling back in the
other direction.  Men's floor exercises must last at
least 50 seconds and not more than 70 seconds.  For the
women, the routine must last at least 70 seconds and not
more than 90 seconds.

Skills to look for:

- Full-in:  double somersault with a full twist in the first
somersault.  A full-out has the twist on the second
somersault (coming "out" of the skill) and a half-in
half-out is, as it sounds, with the twist split between both

- Rudi:  1.5 twisting flip in layout position from a front

- Triple twist.

- Round-off, flip flop...

- Double back/double layout

[D.8] Pommel Horse

The pommel horse is 14 inches wide, 4 feet high (1.09 m) and
5 feet 4 inches (1.62 m) long.  There a pair of rigid
handles in the center of the horse which are about 17 inches
(43 cm) apart.  These handles are called the pommels.  The
horse is covered either with leather or a synthetic fabric.
Since only the hands are allowed to touch the horse,
exceptional strength, balance and endurance are required for
this event.  Elements are performed on both the horse itself
and the pommels, using the entire length of the horse.  The
legs should be straight and the toes pointed.  The top
gymnasts usually precede their dismounts by performing
handstands with twisting movements.

Skills to look for:

- Flairs:  with alternating hand support, the legs are
straight and straddled and circle the body.

- Scissors:  sideways swinging of the body with straight
legs and arms, alternating hand support and legs knifing up
and down on the side of the horse.

[D.9]  Rings

Two rings are used; each one is suspended from a bar which
is 18 feet (5.48m) high.  The rings are 8 inches in diameter
and are attached by 2 feet 3 inch (68.6cm) straps to wire
cables almost 18 inches (45.7cm) apart.  The rings are 8.5
feet (2.51m) off the mat.  This event is also referred to as
the "still rings" because the gymnast's goal is to keep the
rings from swinging as much as possible.  Both circling and
strength moves are performed.  When performing a strength
move, the gymnast is required to hold the position for at
least two seconds to demonstrate mastery of the skill.

Skills to look for:

- Iron cross:  arms straight and held out horizontally,
with the body in a vertical position.

- Maltese:  Resembles a horizontal cross, with the arms at
the side of and closer to the body.

- L-cross:  Iron cross, but with 90-degree bend at hips and
straight legs.

- Planche:  handstand with body parallel to the floor.  This
is common on many events, actually, including parallel bars,
floor exercise (men), and balance beam.

[D.10] Parallel Bars

The bars are 11.5 feet (3.4 m) long and 5 feet 7 inches (1.7
m) high.  The width of the bars is adjustable from 16 to 20
inches.  A routine combines swinging moves, strength
elements and flight elements, performed both above and below
the bars.  Some gymnasts perform moves on the outside of the
bars, as well.  Like other routines, flow and rhythm are
necessary for a good score.

Skills to look for:

- Back toss:  from handstand, backward swing with brief hand
release (while arms circle back) to recatch in handstand.

- Diamidov:  from handstand, backward swing finishing with
360-degree turn on 1 arm to return to handstand.

- Healy:  from handstand, forward swing beginning with 360-
degree turn on 1 arm to return to handstand.

- Stutz:  from handstand, forward swing and let go of the
bar, perform a half-turn in the air and finish in a

Peach basket:  a piked swing underneath the bars to gain
momentum from which the gymnast opens and releases to "pop"
above the bars.

[E.1]  How did gymnastics begin?

The earliest evidence of gymnastics can be found on frescoes
from the Minoan civilization (2700-1400 BC), which depict
acrobats leaping over the horns of a bull.

"Gymnastics" is derived from the Greek word "gumnos" (naked)
and, while gymnastics was never included in the ancient
Olympic Games, it was regarded as training for other sports,
such as wrestling and athletics.  When the Games were
abolished in 393 AD, there was a decline in the
participation of many sports, including gymnastics.  For
several centuries, therefore, the sport was practiced mainly
by acrobats performing their skills in traveling circuses
and for royalty.

In the 18th century, philosophers began to stress the
importance of physical exercise, but it was not until
Frederic Louis Jahn recognized the national importance of
gymnastics and turned it into a means of the German
patriotic feeling that gymnastics became popular throughout
Europe.  Jahn, called the "father of gymnastics," invented
various apparatus and exercises, wrote a book called "Die
Deutsche Turnkunst" and developed Turner (gymnastic)
societies in Germany.  By the late 1800's many other
countries had formed their own gymnastics societies, each of
which was organized on a national level.  Nicolas J.
Cuperus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation,
invited delegates from several European gymnastics unions to
a meeting held in conjunction with the Belgian gymnastics
festival in 1881, and thus was born the European Gymnastics
Federation, or FEG (renamed the Federation Internationale de
Gymnastique ("FIG") in 1921).  Beginning in 1896 the FEG met
every year or two, each time admitting more countries as
members of the Federation.

The early competitions featured both gymnastics exercises
(on pommel horse, rings, parallel and high bars, for
example) and athletic exercises (running, high jump, weight
lifting and pole vaulting), and were held in outdoor arenas.
The athletic events were abolished at the 1936 Olympic
Games, and were used for the last time at the 1950 World

Women began performing in gymnastics societies in the late
1800's.  The first international festival which included
female participation was held in Luxembourg in 1909, and
exercises included rhythmic, balletic and choreographic
routines.  The Amsterdam Olympics of 1928 featured the first
women's gymnastics competition; women competed at the World
Championships for the first time at the 1934 Budapest

[E.2]  Who was the first to...?

Being the first to execute a gymnastics skill in
international competition is an accomplishment highly
regarded in the sport.  Moves are often named after the
gymnast who first performs them.  Here is our list of "who
was the first to...?".  Our main source of reference for
this section is the book "Flickflack" (Andreas Gotze and
Hans-Jurgen Zeume, Sportverlag Berlin, GDR, 1986)  Other
sources include videos, "International Gymnast" magazine, and first-hand



-  Tsukahara
     Ludmila Turischeva (URS), '74 Worlds
-  Full twist on, full twist off
     Olga Korbut (URS), '74 Worlds
-  Full-twisting tucked Tsukahara
     Nelli Kim (URS), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked front
     Marta Egervari (HUN), Maria Filatova (URS),
     '76 Olympics
-  Layout Tsukahara
     Maria Filatova & Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS),
     '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting layout Tsukahara
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '78 Worlds
-  Tucked front with 1/2 twist
     Christa Canary (USA), '78 Worlds
-  Cuervo
     Christa Canary (USA), '79 Worlds
-  Layout Cuervo
     Lan Sang (CHN), '96 American Cup
-  Tucked double front
     Choe Jong Sil (PRK), '80 Olympics
-  Full twist on, front tuck off
     Elena Davydova (URS), '80 Olympics
-  Layout Yurchenko
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '82 World Cup
-  Full-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '82 World Cup
-  1.5-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Elena Shushunova (URS), '84 Olomouc
-  Double-twisting layout Yurchenko
     Elena Gurova (URS), '84 DTB Cup
-  Yurchenko on, 1/2 twist to immediate layout front off
     Snejana Hristakieva (BUL), '92 Olympics
-  Layout front
     Irina Evdokimova (KAZ), '93 Worlds
-  1/4 on, 1/4 off to layout front salto
     Jaycie Phelps (USA), '94 Dortmund Worlds

Uneven Bars:


-  Front salto over LB to sit on LB
     Marta Egervari & Krisztina Medveczky (HUN), '74 Worlds
-  Jump to clear hip on HB to handstand with 1/2 turn
     Julianne McNamara (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Round-off, Arabian over LB to brief sit on LB
     Michelle Goodwin (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Round-off, tucked back somersault over LB to recatch LB
     Birgit Senff (GDR), '84 Olomouc


-  Toe on, 1/2 twist to tucked back
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '75 Europeans
-  Tucked double back
     Nadia Chatarova (BUL), '76 Olympics
-  Hecht to immediate full-twisting tucked back
     Natalia Tereschenko (URS), '78 American Cup
-  Hecht, 1/2 twist to immediate tucked front
     Ma Yanhong (CHN), '79 Worlds
-  Double twisting flyaway
     Kathy Johnson (USA), '81 Worlds
-  Tucked full-in
     Maiko Morio (JPN), '83 Worlds
-  Double Layout
     Diana Dudeva (BUL), '87 Worlds
-  Tucked double front
     Lacramioara Filip (ROM), Sarah Mercer (GBR),
     '89 Worlds
-  Tucked full-out
     Oksana Chusovitina (URS), '91 Worlds
-  Layout full-out
     Elena Piskun (BLR), '96 Worlds
-  Tucked full-in full-out
     Oksana Fabrichnova (RUS), '93 Worlds


-  FF from HB to recatch HB (Korbut)
     Olga Korbut (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Deltchev
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Giant swing
     Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting Korbut
     Elena Mukhina (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Back stalder to handstand with full turn in handstand
     Marcia Frederick (USA), '78 Worlds
-  Tkachev
     Elena Davydova (URS), '80 Olympics
-  Tkachev to immediate Deltchev
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Underswing from HB with 1.5 twists and flight over LB to
   hand on LB (Strong)
     Lori Strong (CAN), '89 Worlds
-  Swing forward on HB (facing out), counter salto forward
   to recatch in reverse grip (Kim)
     Kim Gwang Suk (PRK), '89 Worlds
-  Def (full-twisting Gienger)
     Snejana Hristakieva (BUL), '91 Junior Europeans
-  Gaylord I Salto
     Mo Huilan (CHN), '94 Brisbane Worlds

Balance Beam:


-  Press to handstand
     Larissa Latynina & Tamara Manina (URS), '62 Worlds
-  Front tuck
     Stella Zacharova (URS), '79 World Cup
-  RO, FF
     Maxi Gnauck (GDR), '81 Europeans
-  RO, full-twisting tucked back
     Kelly Garrison (USA), '85 Worlds
-  RO, layout
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '85 Worlds
-  RO, full-twisting FF
     Patricia Luconi (ITA), '87 Worlds
-  Jump to 1-armed handstand
     Janine Rankin (CAN), '87 Worlds
-  Front handspring immediate tucked front
     Anastasia Dzyundzyak (UZB), '94 Asian Games


-  Cartwheel, tucked back salto
     Vera Caslvaska (TCH), '62 Worlds
-  Tucked front
     Keiko Ikeda (JPN), '62 Worlds
-  Cartwheel, full-twisting layout
     Vera Caslavska (TCH), '68 Olympics
-  Cartwheel, double-twisting layout
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '75 Europeans
-  Tucked double back
     Elena Mukhina & Natalia Shaposhnikova (URS),
     '77 World Cup
-  Piked double back
     Maria Filatova (URS), '77 World Cup
-  Full-twisting tucked double back
     Albina Shishova & Tatiana Frolova (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Triple twist
     Iva Cervenkova (TCH), '83 Worlds


-  Cartwheel
     Eva Bosakova (TCH), '56 Olympics
-  Flick flack
     Erika Zuchold (GDR), '66 Worlds
-  Front handspring
     Karin Janz & Erika Zuchold (GDR), Vera Caslavska (TCH),
     '68 Olympics
-  Tucked back salto
     Olga Korbut (URS) and Nancy Thies (USA), '72 Olympics
-  FF to swing down and straddle beam (Korbut)
     Olga Korbut (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Layout salto
     Aurelia Dobre (ROM), '74 Worlds
-  Two consecutive layout stepout saltos
     Eugenia Golea (ROM), '84 American Cup
-  Tucked front salto
     Carola Dombeck (GDR), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked side salto
     Elena Davydova (URS), '76 American Cup
-  Side FF to back hip circle under beam (Yurchenko loop)
     Natalia Yurchenko (URS), '79 Spartakiade
-  Full-twisting Korbut (Rulfova)
     Jana Rulfova (TCH), '81 Worlds
-  Tucked back salto with full twist (from RO)
     Albina Shishova (URS), '83 Worlds
-  Tucked back salto with full twist (from a stand)
     Aleftina Priakhina (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Layout salto with full twist (from RO)
     Olessia Dudnik (URS), '89 American Cup
-  Triple pirouette (Okino)
     Betty Okino (USA), '91 Worlds

Floor Exercise:

-  Full-twisting back layout
     Muriel Grossfeld (USA), '60 Olympics
-  Double-twisting back layout
     Zdenka Bujnackova (TCH), Joan Moore (USA), & Ludmila
     Turischeva (URS), '72 Olympics
-  Full twisting front layout
     Margit Toth (HUN), '76 Olympics
-  Tucked double back
     Nadia Comaneci (ROM), '76 American Cup
-  Tucked full-in
     Elena Mukhina (URS), '78 Worlds
-  Triple twisting back layout
     Maxi Gnauck (GDR), '79 Worlds
-  Full-twisting back layout, punch front
     Heidi Anderson (USA), '79 Moscow News
-  Double layout
     Diana Dudeva (BUL), '83 Worlds
-  Double-twisting back layout, punch front
     Oksana Omelianchik (URS), '85 Europeans
-  1 3/4 piked side salto
     Elena Shushunova (URS), '85 Europeans
-  Full-in, full-out
     Aleftina Priakhina (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Double front salto
     Olga Strazheva (URS), '86 Junior Europeans
-  Double back layout with full twist in 1st salto
     Tatiana Tuzhikova (URS), '87 Worlds
-  Double full-in, back out
     Tatiana Groshkova (URS), '89 Chunichi Cup
-  Double back layout with full twist in 2nd salto
     Oksana Chusovitina (URS), '91 Worlds
-  Double front salto with 1/2 twist in 2nd salto
     Lilia Podkopayeva (UKR), '95 Worlds


End of GYMN-L Digest - 4 May 1996 - Special issue